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sunburn is a form of radiation
burn that affects living tissue, such
that results from an overexposure to ultraviolet
(UV) radiation, commonly from the sun.
Normal symptoms in humans and other animals
include red or reddish skin that is hot
to the touch, general fatigue, and mild
dizziness. An excess of UV radiation can
be life-threatening in extreme cases.
Exposure of the skin to lesser amounts
of UV radiation will often produce a suntan.
UV radiation is the leading cause of primarily
non-malignant skin tumors.
is widely agreed to prevent sunburn and
some types of skin
cancer. Clothing, including hats,
is considered the preferred skin protection
method. Moderate sun
tanning without burning can also prevent
subsequent sunburn, as it increases the
amount of melanin,
that is the skin's natural defense against
overexposure. Importantly, both sunburn
and the increase in melanin production
are triggered by direct
DNA damage. When the skin cells' DNA
is damaged by UV radiation, type
I cell-death is triggered and the
skin is replaced.
caused by extended exposure on a glacier.
on a shoulder caused by sunburn.
there is initial redness (erythema),
followed by varying degrees of pain,
proportional in severity to both the duration
and intensity of exposure.
symptoms can include edema,
Also, a small amount of heat is given
off from the burn, caused by the concentration
of blood in the healing process, giving
a warm feeling to the affected area. Sunburns
may be first-
sunburns typically cause nothing more
than slight redness and tenderness to
the affected areas. In more serious cases,
blistering can occur. Extreme sunburns
can be painful to the point of debilitation
and may require hospital care.
can occur in less than 15 minutes, and
in seconds when exposed to non-shielded
welding arcs or other sources of intense
ultraviolet light. Nevertheless, the inflicted
harm is often not immediately obvious.
the exposure, skin may turn red in as
little as 30 minutes but most often takes
2 to 6 hours. Pain is usually most extreme
6 to 48 hours after exposure. The burn
continues to develop for 24 to 72 hours,
occasionally followed by peeling skin
in 3 to 8 days. Some peeling and itching
may continue for several weeks.
low-intensity exposure to sunlight is
known to cause significant aging of the
skin; other health effects are not accurately
known. A particular example with very
noticeable aging is that of a 69-year-old
truck driver of Chicago, IL in the United
States, who drove in the city for 28 years.
A photograph of his face
shows a great deal of ageing on the left
side, where he was exposed to sunlight
all day, while the right side has the
"taut, unblemished face of an apparently
much younger man".
Window glass does not absorb UVA, which
can penetrate the epidermis and upper
layers of dermis. Chronic UVA exposure
can cause photoaging:
thickening of the epidermis and stratum
corneum and destruction of elastic fibers;
it can cause DNA mutations and toxicity
which can lead to cancer, although less
carcinogenic than UVB.
radiation causes sunburns and increases
the risk of three types of skin cancer:
carcinoma and squamous
Of greatest concern is that the melanoma
risk increases in a dose-dependent manner
with the number of a person's lifetime
cumulative episodes of sunburn.
cause of sunburn is the direct damage
that a UV-B photon can induce in DNA
(left). One of the possible reactions
from the excited state is the formation
of a thymine-thymine cyclobutane dimer
(right). This kind of damage is responsible
for only 8% of all melanoma.
is caused by UV radiation, either from
the sun or from artificial sources, such
as tanning lamps, welding
arcs, and ultraviolet
germicidal irradiation. It is a reaction
of the body to the direct
DNA damage, which can result from
the excitation of DNA by UVB light. This
damage is mainly the formation of a thymine
dimer. The damage is recognized by
the body, which then triggers several
defense mechanisms, including DNA repair
to revert the damage and increased melanin
production to prevent future damage. Melanin
readily absorbs UV wavelength light, acting
as a photoprotectant.
By preventing the disruption of bonds
that higher-energy photons can produce,
it inhibits both direct alteration of
DNA and generation of free
radicals, thus indirect DNA damage.
pain may be caused by overproduction of
a protein called CXCL5,
which activates nerve fibres.
with mice found that protection against
sunburn by chemical sunscreens does not
necessarily provide protection against
other damaging effects of UV radiation
such as enhanced melanoma growth.
These were pre-2000 sunscreens that offered
only limited protection against UVA radiation.
radiation sunburn and melanoma. Statistical
correlation vs causal connection.
type determines the ease of sunburn. In
general, people with lighter skin tone
have a greater risk of sunburn. Age also
affects how skin reacts to sun: the skin
of children younger than 6 and adults
older than 60 is more sensitive to sunlight.
Factors of sunburn include:
time of day. Between 10am and 4pm
daylight saving time, the sun's rays
are the strongest. UV is partially
blocked by clouds; but even on an
overcast day, a significant percentage
of the sun's damaging UV radiation
can pass through clouds.
to reflective surfaces, such as water,
white sand, concrete, snow, and ice.
All of these reflect the sun's rays
and can cause sunburns.
season of the year. The position of
the sun on late spring and summer
days can cause a more severe sunburn.
At a higher altitude it is easier
to become burnt because there is less
of the earth's atmosphere to block
the sunlight. UV exposure increases
about 4% for every 1000 ft (305
m) gain in elevation.
to the equator (latitude). The closer
to the equator, the more direct sunlight
passes through the atmosphere. For
example, the southern United States
gets fifty percent more sunlight than
the northern United States.
Index, which indicates the risk
of getting a sunburn at a given time
dose at three Northern latitudes
of variations in the intensity of UV radiation
passing through the atmosphere, the risk
of sunburn increases with proximity to
latitudes, located between 23.5° north
and south latitude. All else being equal
etc.), over the course of a full year,
each location within the tropic or polar
regions receives approximately the
same amount of UV radiation. In the temperate
zones between 23.5° and 66.5°, UV
radiation varies by latitude and season.
The higher the latitude, the lower the
intensity of the UV rays. Intensity in
the northern hemisphere is greatest during
the months of May, June and July — and
in the southern hemisphere, November,
December and January. On a minute-by-minute
basis, the amount of UV radiation is dependent
on the angle of the sun. This is easily
determined by the height ratio
of any object to the size of its shadow.
The greatest risk is at solar
when shadows are at their minimum and
the sun's radiation passes more directly
through the atmosphere. Regardless of
one's latitude (assuming no other variables),
equal shadow lengths mean equal amounts
of UV radiation.
risk of a sunburn can be increased by
products that sensitize users to UV radiation.
have this effect.
recent decades, the incidence and severity
of sunburn has increased worldwide, especially
in the southern hemisphere, because of
damage to the ozone
depletion and the seasonal ozone
hole have led to dangerously high
levels of UV radiation in some locations.
Incidence of skin cancer in Queensland,
had risen to 75 percent among those over
64 years of age by about 1990, due, it
is presumed, to thinning of the ozone
It was pointed out by Garland et al. that
the melanoma rate in Queensland had taken
a steep rise before the rest of Australia
experienced the same increase of melanoma
numbers. They blamed the vigorous promotion
of sunscreen, which was first done in
Queensland, while sunscreen use was encouraged
in the rest of Australia some time later.
An effect that would stem from the ozone
depletion could not differ from territory
to territory within Australia, but sunscreen
endorsement programs could.
Another study from Norway points out that
there had been no change in the ozone
layer during the period 1957 to 1984,
yet the yearly incidence of melanoma in
Norway had increased by 350% for men and
by 440% for women. They concluded that
in Norway "ozone depletion is not the
cause of the increase in skin cancers".
which naturally develop in some individuals
as a protective mechanism against the
sun, are viewed by most in the Western
world as desirable.
This has led to increased exposure to
UV radiation from both the natural sun
effect (as measured by the UV
Index) is the product of the sunlight
spectrum (radiation intensity) and
the erythemal action spectrum (skin
sensitivity) across the range of UV
wavelengths. Sunburn production per
milliwatt is increased by almost a
factor of 100 between the near UVB
wavelengths of 315–295 nm
peeling. The destruction of lower
layers of the epidermis causes rapid
loss of the top layers.
of the most effective ways to prevent
sunburn is to reduce the amount of UV
radiation reaching the skin. The strength
of sunlight is published in many locations
as a UV
Index. The World
Health Organization recommends to
limit time in midday summer sun (between
10 a.m. and 4 p.m.), to watch the UV Index,
to seek shade, to wear protective clothing
and a wide-brim hat, and to use sunscreen.
Sunlight is generally strongest when the
sun is close to the highest point in the
sky. Due to time zones and daylight
saving time, this is not necessarily
at 12 p.m., but often one to two hours
skin and eyes are most sensitive to damage
by UV at 265–275 nm, which is in the lower
UVC band that is almost never encountered
except from artificial sources like welding
arcs. Most sunburn is caused by longer
wavelengths simply because those are more
prevalent in sunlight at ground level.
preparations are available that block
UV light, known as sunscreens or sunblocks.
They have a Sun
Protection Factor (SPF) rating, based
on the sunblock's ability to suppress
sunburn: The higher the SPF rating, the
lower the amount of direct DNA damage.
sunscreens contain filters for UVA radiation
as well as UVB. The stated protection
factors are correct only if 2 µL
of sunscreen is applied per square cm
of exposed skin. This translates into
about 28 mL (1 oz) to cover the whole
body of an adult male, which is much more
than many people use in practice. Although
UVA radiation does not cause sunburn,
it does contribute to skin aging and an
increased risk of skin cancer. Many sunscreens
provide broad-spectrum protection, meaning
that they protect against both UVA and
has shown that the best protection is
achieved by application 15 to 30 minutes
before exposure, followed by one reapplication
15 to 30 minutes after exposure begins.
Further reapplication is necessary only
after activities such as swimming, sweating,
This varies based on the indications and
protection shown on the label — from as
little as 80 minutes in water to a few
hours, depending on the product selected.
is effective and thus recommended for
and squamous cell carcinoma.
There is little evidence that it is effective
in preventing basal cell carcinoma.
Other advice to reduce rates of skin cancer
includes: avoiding sunburning, wearing
protective clothing, sunglasses and hats,
and attempting to avoid sun exposure or
periods of peak exposure.
Preventive Services Task Force recommends
that people aged between 9 and 25 years
of age be advised to avoid ultraviolet
Typical use of sunscreen does not usually
result in vitamin
D deficiency, but extensive usage
one is exposed to any artificial source
of occupational UV, special protective
clothing (for example, welding
helmets/shields) should be worn. Such
sources can produce UVC, an extremely
carcinogenic wavelength of UV which ordinarily
is not present in normal sunlight, having
been filtered out by the atmosphere.
eyes are also sensitive to sun exposure
at about the same wavelengths in the UV
as skin. Wrap-around sunglasses
or the use by spectacle-wearers of glasses
that block UV light reduce harmful UV
radiation. UV light has been implicated
in the development of age-related macular
Concentrated clusters of melanin, commonly
known as freckles,
are often found within the iris.
factors influence susceptibility to sunburn,
recovery from sunburn, and risk of secondary
complications from sunburn. Several dietary
including essential vitamins, have been
shown to have some effectiveness for protecting
against sunburn and skin damage associated
with ultraviolet radiation, both in human
and animal studies. Supplementation with
C and Vitamin
E was shown in one study to reduce
the amount of sunburn after a controlled
amount of UV exposure.
A review of scientific literature through
2007 found that beta
carotene (Vitamin A) supplementation
had a protective effect against sunburn,
but that the effects were only evident
in the long-term, with studies of supplementation
for periods less than 10 weeks in duration
failing to show any effects.
There is also evidence that common foods
may have some protective ability against
sunburn if taken for a period before the
most important aspects of sunburn care
are to avoid exposure
to the sun while healing and to take
precautions to prevent future burns. The
best treatment for most sunburns is time.
Most sunburns heal completely within a
few weeks. Home treatments that help manage
the discomfort or facilitate the healing
process include using cool and wet cloths
on the sunburned areas, taking frequent
cold showers or baths, and applying soothing
lotions that contain aloe
to the sunburn areas. Topical steroids
(such as 1% hydrocortisone
cream) may also help with sunburn
pain and swelling. The peeling that comes
after some sunburn is inevitable. However,
there are lotions such as calamine
that may relieve the itching. Paracetamol
(acetaminophen in the US), non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen
have all been shown to reduce the pain
Health Organization, International
Agency for Research on Cancer "Do
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Health Organization, International
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Dermatoheliosis, Jennifer R.S. Gordon,
M.D., and Joaquin C. Brieva, M.D.,
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newspaper: One face, but two sides
of a story, 6 June 2012
About Sunburn and Skin Cancer",
and risk of cutaneous melanoma, does
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J. Paterson, H. Kiesewetter, C. Hobbs,
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Up to 80%
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light cloud cover.
UV Index Is Calculated". EPA.
allow virtually 100% of UV to pass
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89%, broken clouds transmit 73%, and
overcast skies transmit 31%.
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of ozone depletion on human and animal
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Bernhard (1998). "Protective effect
against sunburn of combined systemic
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– Home Treatment". Healthwise.
November 15, 2013.
honest answer is the sign of true friendship."
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